Sequential growth factor delivery from complexed microspheres for bone tissue engineering

Başmanav, Fitnat Buket
Complexed microspheres of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VN) and alginic acid were prepared by internal gelation method and subsequent freeze drying. The 4% and 10% microspheres were loaded with Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (BMP-7), respectively for in vitro studies and were entrapped in PLGA foams. Foams containing only 4%, BMP-2 microspheres, only 10%, BMP-7 microspheres and both populations were prepared. Control samples of each group were prepared with drug free microspheres. Bone marrow derived stem cells from rat femur and tibia isolated by a surgical operation, were seeded onto foams. Proliferation of cells on foams containing both microsphere populations was higher at all time points regardless of the presence of BMPs. This was attributed to different porosity characteristics. Proliferation was higher at all times in control samples in comparison to their positive samples for all groups, suggesting proliferation attenuation related enhancement in osteogenic activity due to BMP supply. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were lower at all time points for foams containing both microsphere populations regardless of BMP presence. This was attributed to different physical characteristics of foams confirmed by the inverse correlation between proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Total and specific ALP activity results demonstrated the significant positive influence of all BMP containing types in enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Best results were obtained with co-administration of sequential delivery performing 4% and 10% microspheres loaded with BMP-2 and BMP-7, respectively.