Theoretical investigation and design for x-ray lasers and their lithographic application

Demir, Pınar
Grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) is a scheme to produce x-ray lasers and extreme ultraviolet lithography is a means of lithographic production which requires soft x-rays with a bandwidth of 2% centred at 13,5 nm. In this work firstly a grazing incidence pumping of Ni-like Mo and Ne-like Ti x-ray laser media were simulated by using EHYBRID and a post-processor code coupled to it. The required atomic data were obtained from the Cowan code. Besides, the timing issue needed for amplification purpose in a Ti:Sapphire laser system has been described theoretically. Afterwards, in order to produce soft x-ray lasers for extreme ultraviolet lithographic applications, emission of soft x-rays in the 2% bandwidth centred at 13.5 nm emitted from Sn XII and Sn XIII ions were simulated by using the EHYBRID code for a laser operating at 1064 nm with 1 J of pulse energy and 6 ns of pulse duration. The intensity range that has been investigated is between 1-5 x 1012 W/cm2. Ion fractions of tin ions and line intensities corresponding to different electron temperatures were calculated by using the collisional radiative code NeF.
Citation Formats
P. Demir, “Theoretical investigation and design for x-ray lasers and their lithographic application,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2008.