Seismic response and vulnerability assessment of Tunnels: a case study on Bolu Tunnels

Üçer, Serkan
The aim of the study is to develop new analytical fragility curves for the vulnerability assessment of tunnels based on actual damage data of tunnels obtained from past earthquakes. For this purpose, additional important damage data belonging to Bolu Tunnels, Turkey was utilized as a case study. Bolu Tunnels constitute a very interesting case from the earthquake hazard point of view, since two major earthquakes, 17 August 1999 Marmara and 12 November 1999 Düzce, occurred during the construction of the tunnels. The August 17, 1999 earthquake was reported to have had minimal impact on the Bolu Tunnels. However, the November 12, 1999 earthquake caused some sections of both tunnels to collapse. The remaining sections of the tunnels survived with various damage states which were subsequently documented in detail. This valuable damage data was thoroughly utilized in this study. To develop analytical fragility curves, the methodology described by Argyroudis et al. (2007) was followed. Seismic response of the Tunnels was assessed using analytical, pseudo-static and full-dynamic approaches. In this way, it was possible to make comparisons regarding the dynamic analysis methods of tunnels to predict the seismically induced damage. Compared to the pseudo-static and full-dynamic methods, the predictive capability of the analytical method is found to be relatively low due to limitations inherent to this method. The pseudo-static and full-dynamic solution results attained appear to be closer to each other and better represented the recorded damage states in general. Still, however, the predictive capability of the pseudo-static approach was observed to be limited for particular cases with reference to the full-dynamic method, especially for the sections with increasingly difficult ground conditions. The final goal of this study is the improvement of damage indexes corresponding to the defined damage states which were proposed by Argyroudis et al. (2005) based on the previous experience of damages in tunnels and engineering judgment. These damage indexes were modified in accordance with the findings from the dynamic analyses and actual damage data documented from Bolu Tunnels following the Düzce earthquake. Three damage states were utilized to quantify the damage in this study.


Prediction of potential damage due to severe earthquakes
Yücemen, Mehmet Semih; Pay, AC (2004-01-01)
A statistical model is developed to estimate the seismic vulnerability of low- to mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings. The model is based on a novel utilization of the discriminant analysis technique of multivariate statistics. Number of stories above the ground level (N), soft story index (SSI), overhang ratio (OHR), minimum normalized lateral stiffness index (MNLSTFI), minimum normalized lateral strength index (MNLSI) and normalized redundancy score (NRS) are selected as the basic estimation variables....
Fragility based assessment of lowrise and midrise reinforced concrete frame buildings in Turkey
Ay, Bekir Özer; Erberik, Murat Altuğ; Department of Civil Engineering (2006)
In this study, structural vulnerability of reinforced concrete frame structures by considering the countryspecific characteristics is investigated to manage the earthquake risk and to develop strategies for disaster mitigation. Lowrise and midrise reinforced concrete structures, which constitute approximately 75% of the total building stock in Turkey, are focused in this fragilitybased assessment. The seismic design of 3, 5, 7 and 9story reinforced concrete frame structures are carried out according to the ...
Seismic vulnerability, behavior and design of tunnel form building structures
Balkaya, C; Kalkan, E (Elsevier BV, 2004-12-01)
Multi-story reinforced concrete tunnel form buildings are one of the common structural types in regions prone to high seismic risk due to the buildings inherent earthquake resistance and ease of construction. Despite their good performance during earthquakes in 1999 in Turkey, and abundance of such structures scattered worldwide, current seismic codes and design provisions provide insufficient guidelines for their seismic design. As a compensatory measure, a series of modal and nonlinear static analyses are...
Performance Assessment of Turkish Residential Buildings for Seismic Damage and Loss Estimation
Un, Elif M.; Erberik, Murat Altuğ; Askan Gündoğan, Ayşegül (2015-04-01)
This study aims to present an integrated method in a probabilistic manner for seismic performance assessment of Turkish residential buildings, which can be used as a tool to estimate earthquake losses due to structural damage. In particular, the objective is to determine the performances of different types of residential buildings for predicting the potential seismic loss in terms of casualties (death toll) for a highly populated city in northwestern Turkey. The main phases of this study are seismic hazard,...
Seismic design of lifeline bridge using hybrid seismic isolation
Dicleli, Murat (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2002-03-01)
This paper presents the merits of a hybrid seismic isolation system used for the seismic design of a major bridge. The bridge is analyzed for two different arrangements of seismic isolation systems. The first arrangement consists of friction pendulum bearings at all substructure locations; the other incorporates a hybrid system where laminated elastomeric bearings are used at the abutments and friction pendulum bearings at the piers. Analysis results have demonstrated that the hybrid seismic isolation syste...
Citation Formats
S. Üçer, “Seismic response and vulnerability assessment of Tunnels: a case study on Bolu Tunnels,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2012.