Seismic response and vulnerability assessment of Tunnels: a case study on Bolu Tunnels

Üçer, Serkan
The aim of the study is to develop new analytical fragility curves for the vulnerability assessment of tunnels based on actual damage data of tunnels obtained from past earthquakes. For this purpose, additional important damage data belonging to Bolu Tunnels, Turkey was utilized as a case study. Bolu Tunnels constitute a very interesting case from the earthquake hazard point of view, since two major earthquakes, 17 August 1999 Marmara and 12 November 1999 Düzce, occurred during the construction of the tunnels. The August 17, 1999 earthquake was reported to have had minimal impact on the Bolu Tunnels. However, the November 12, 1999 earthquake caused some sections of both tunnels to collapse. The remaining sections of the tunnels survived with various damage states which were subsequently documented in detail. This valuable damage data was thoroughly utilized in this study. To develop analytical fragility curves, the methodology described by Argyroudis et al. (2007) was followed. Seismic response of the Tunnels was assessed using analytical, pseudo-static and full-dynamic approaches. In this way, it was possible to make comparisons regarding the dynamic analysis methods of tunnels to predict the seismically induced damage. Compared to the pseudo-static and full-dynamic methods, the predictive capability of the analytical method is found to be relatively low due to limitations inherent to this method. The pseudo-static and full-dynamic solution results attained appear to be closer to each other and better represented the recorded damage states in general. Still, however, the predictive capability of the pseudo-static approach was observed to be limited for particular cases with reference to the full-dynamic method, especially for the sections with increasingly difficult ground conditions. The final goal of this study is the improvement of damage indexes corresponding to the defined damage states which were proposed by Argyroudis et al. (2005) based on the previous experience of damages in tunnels and engineering judgment. These damage indexes were modified in accordance with the findings from the dynamic analyses and actual damage data documented from Bolu Tunnels following the Düzce earthquake. Three damage states were utilized to quantify the damage in this study.
Citation Formats
S. Üçer, “Seismic response and vulnerability assessment of Tunnels: a case study on Bolu Tunnels,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2012.