Life cycle assessment of evaporative recovery of mercerization wastewater

Bayar, Eda
The products of textile industry are irrevocable part of our lives: clothes, carpets, towels etc. However, textile industry is known to be having impact on the environment, especially for its high levels of water consumption and waste generation. The European Union’s Industrial Emissions Directive (former IPPC Directive) requires industrial establishments to apply best available techniques (BAT) both in the production processes and in the waste treatment and disposal. The European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) produces sectorial best available techniques reference documents (BREFs) to co-ordinate the exchange of information between Member States concerned on BAT. The BREF prepared for textile industry recommends the application of hundreds of different techniques in the manufacture of textiles and also in the management of textile effluents. Recovery of highly alkaline wastewater formed during mercerization process by the technique of evaporation is among the BAT suggested for the textile industry. In the context of this study, three scenarios are established based on fuels used for steam production which is used in evaporative recovery (heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and natural gas). Evaporation process is evaluated in terms of its impacts on the environment by using a life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and the environmental burdens of this process is compared to those of conventional end-of-pipe treatment option. By the aid of the SimaPro software, three scenarios of evaporation and the base-line scenario of end-of-pipe treatment (neutralization and activated sludge process) is evaluated selecting- one kg of mercerization wastewater as functional unit and setting boundary conditions as “cradle to grave”. The well-known IMPACT2002+ method is used for environmental impact analysis. The processing of 1 kg of alkaline weak lye from mercerization process by evaporation (which is using natural gas for steam production) is found to be the most environmentally friendly for the recovery of caustic caused the following major environmental impact potentials: global warming potential of 9.89E-05 kg CO2 eq; respiratory inorganics release of 7.44E-05 kg PM2.5 into air-eq; and non-renewable energy use of 0.000127 MJ. However, application of evaporative recovery was not found to improve the environmental performance of mercerization process for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario of end-op-pipe treatment. In particular, impacts due to non-renewable energy and global warming potential were found to be increased to the largest extent with 1.2% and 1.24%, respectively. An economical comparison of evaporative recovery and end-of-pipe treatment of weak lye was also carried out and profitability was analyzed to assess the evaporative recovery option’s potential return on investment using Net Present Value (NPV) analysis. The results indicated that the application of evaporative recovery of weak lye is profitable and therefore it complies with economical standards.


Ozonation of a denim producing textile industry wastewater-process optimization
Moralı, Eyüp Kaan; Yetiş, Ülkü; Department of Environmental Engineering (2010)
Denim production is one of the leading sub-sectors of textile industry which basically generates highly colored indigo dyeing effluents. In the present study, ozonation was applied to the indigo-dyeing effluent(COD=820 mg/L;color=5500 Pt-Co), and to the whole effluent from a denim-producing plant before(COD=2750 mg/L;color=3950 Pt-Co) and after(COD=800 mg/L,color=3700 Pt-Co) biological treatment for degradation/detoxification purposes. Ozonation was also tried in the wastewater of the plant(COD=3100 mg/L;co...
Ozonation pre and post-treatment of denim textile mill effluents: Effect of cleaner production measures
Morali, E. Kaan; UZAL, NİĞMET; Yetiş, Ülkü (2016-11-20)
Denim production, which is one of the leading sub-sectors of textile industry that generates considerable amount of wastewater with high pollution load both from dyeing and finishing processes. This sub-sector is therefore to consider cleaner production opportunities for these processes to reduce its wastewater generation and pollution load. In a denim-producing plant, the wastewater treatability studies have revealed that the most technically applicable cleaner production alternatives are caustic recovery ...
Evaluation of Integrated Pollution Prevention Control in a textile fiber production and dyeing mill
Ozturk, Emrah; KARABOYACI, Mustafa; Yetiş, Ülkü; YİĞİT, Nevzat Özgü; KİTİŞ, Mehmet (Elsevier BV, 2015-02-01)
Cleaner production assessment studies were conducted in a textile mill employing wool and acrylic fiber production and subsequent dyeing. A company-wide mass-balance analysis was performed. Various specific consumptions, emissions and waste generations were determined. The performance of the mill was evaluated based on BREF Documents. Water quality analysis indicated that process wastewaters from wool yarn softening, LP-VP printing machines and acrylic yarn washing could be reused in these processes, even w...
Sustainable textile production: cleaner production assessment/eco-efficiency analysis study in a textile mill
Ozturk, Emrah; KÖSEOĞLU, Hasan; KARABOYACI, Mustafa; YİĞİT, Nevzat Özgü; Yetiş, Ülkü; KİTİŞ, Mehmet (2016-12-01)
Cleaner production assessment studies were carried out according to the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and Industrial Emission Directive in a cotton/polyester fabric finishing-dyeing textile mill, located in Denizli, Turkey. Following detailed on-site process evaluation, environmental performance of the mill was evaluated. Data of the material flow and the energy consumption in all processes was collected. Mass-energy balances and specific input and output values based on the production process...
Akın, Deniz; Yakar, Arzu; Gündüz, Ufuk (2015-09-03)
Dyes, which are used in different industries such as paper, plastics, leather, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, textiles, etc., constitute a major class of environmental pollutants. In recent studies, magnetic adsorbents combining magnetic separation technology with the adsorption process has been used to remove dyes from industrial wastewaters. The main advantages of the adsorbents are possible to be easily and simply separated from process media in a short time using the external magnetic field and will b...
Citation Formats
E. Bayar, “Life cycle assessment of evaporative recovery of mercerization wastewater,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2015.