How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?

Ikizer, Gozde
Karancı, Ayşe Nuray
Dogulu, Canay
Objective: Around the globe, millions of people are exposed to disasters annually. Disasters may result in a wide range of psychological consequences in adult populations, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS). However, little is known about the effects of the impacts of type of disaster exposure on the symptoms of PTS. This study aimed to understand the effects of objective and subjective impact severity of disaster exposure on symptoms of PTS in the aftermath of two earthquakes which struck Van, Turkey in 2011. Methods: Three hundred and sixty earthquake survivors from districts with different levels of earthquake exposure participated in the study. Consistent with the aims of the study, the participants responded to the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and a measure of earthquake exposure severity. The relationship between symptom clusters and impact of disaster exposure was examined through a multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The findings demonstrated differential effects of type of disaster exposure severity on the symptom clusters of PTS, showing that the two core clusters, re-experiencing and avoidance, differentially related to levels of subjective and objective impact of disaster exposure while symptoms of hyperarousal were commonly reported in survivors who experienced high levels of impact irrespective of the type of exposure. Discussion: This study provided empirical evidence for an important distinction regarding impact of exposure between symptom clusters of PTSD. The findings may guide the development or planning of psychoeducation-based interventions with differential focus on posttraumatic stress symptoms for survivors having different levels of objective and/or subjective impact of exposure.


Factors related to psychological resilience among survivors of the earthquakes in Van, Turkey
İkizer, Gözde; Karancı, Ayşe Nuray; Department of Psychology (2014)
Exposure to natural disasters is common, with millions of people affected annually. Traumatic events including disasters may result in a wide range of psychological consequences in adults. They may evoke negative outcomes in exposed individuals including posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. However, in recent years, the field of trauma studies has fuelled interest in positive changes following adversity including growth and resilience. The present study aimed to investigate psychological resilience in the ...
The effect of disasters on development: Van and Bingol case studies
Gül, Tuğba; Başbuğ Erkan, Berna Burçak; Şenol Balaban, Meltem; Department of Earthquake Studies (2014)
The increase of the number of natural, technological and man-made disasters and economic losses due to disasters caused an increase in significance of the studies that investigate the relationship between disaster and development. Turkey has actualized many studies after the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, however, the focus of disaster policies are still concentrated on response and reconstruction/recovery stages of disaster. 2003 Bingöl and 2011 Van earthquakes showed that disasters still cause economic burden o...
Predictive factors of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth among the survivors of Van, 2011, earthquakes’ trauma
Elçi , Özcan; Bozo Özen, Özlem; Department of Psychology (2021-2-08)
Earthquakes, like other natural major disasters involves trauma resulting from exposure and/or witnessing to deaths and injuries, extreme fear of threatening situations, loss of a significant one, monetary loss and need of extreme physical power. On the other hand, the survivors may have also present positive changes in face of adversity. In present study, both negative and positive impacts of Van earthquakes which happened in 23rd of October and 9th of November 2011 are examined. 630 volunteer teachers fro...
Satellite Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling for Flood Inundation Mapping in Lake Victoria Basin: Implications for Hydrologic Prediction in Ungauged Basins
Khan, Sadiq I.; Hong, Yang; Wang, Jiahu; Yılmaz, Koray Kamil; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Adler, Robert F.; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Policelli, Fritz; Habib, Shahid; Irwin, Daniel (2011-01-01)
Floods are among the most catastrophic natural disasters around the globe impacting human lives and infrastructure. Implementation of a flood prediction system can potentially help mitigate flood-induced hazards. Such a system typically requires implementation and calibration of a hydrologic model using in situ observations (i.e., rain and stream gauges). Recently, satellite remote sensing data have emerged as a viable alternative or supplement to in situ observations due to their availability over vast ung...
How do survivors perceive community resilience? The case of the 2011 earthquakes in Van, Turkey
Dogulu, Canay; Karancı, Ayşe Nuray; Ikizer, Gozde (2016-06-01)
Understanding and facilitating community resilience have been increasingly acknowledged as important aspects of disaster risk management. The concept is often described as bouncing back or forward following disaster events. Various attempts have been made to conceptualize resilience of communities and individuals to disasters. The present research aimed to qualitatively explore survivors' perceptions of community resilience in the case of the 2011 Van earthquakes in Turkey. To this end, in-depth interviews ...
Citation Formats
G. Ikizer, A. N. Karancı, and C. Dogulu, “How does impact of objective and subjective disaster exposure relate to the three clusters of posttraumatic stress symptoms?,” ANADOLU PSIKIYATRI DERGISI-ANATOLIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, pp. 209–213, 2016, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: