Human and Chimpanzee Gene Expression Differences Replicated in Mice Fed Different Diets

Somel, Mehmet
Franz, Henriette
Mueller, Uwe
Lachmann, Michael
Khaitovich, Philipp
Paeaebo, Svante
Although the human diet is markedly different from the diets of closely related primate species, the influence of diet on phenotypic and genetic differences between humans and other primates is unknown. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in laboratory mice fed diets typical of humans and of chimpanzees. The effects of human diets were found to be significantly different from that of a chimpanzee diet in the mouse liver, but not in the brain. Importantly, 10% of the genes that differ in their expression between humans and chimpanzee livers differed also between the livers of mice fed the human and chimpanzee diets. Furthermore, both the promoter sequences and the amino acid sequences of these diet-related genes carry more differences between humans and chimpanzees than random genes. Our results suggest that the mouse can be used to study at least some aspects of human-specific traits.


Mechanisms of Dietary Response in Mice and Primates: A Role for EGR1 in Regulating the Reaction to Human-Specific Nutritional Content
Weng, Kai; Hu, Haiyang; Xu, Augix Guohua; Khaitovich, Philipp; Somel, Mehmet (2012-08-24)
Background: Humans have a widely different diet from other primate species, and are dependent on its high nutritional content. The molecular mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the human diet are currently unknown. Here, we addressed this question by investigating whether the gene expression response observed in mice fed human and chimpanzee diets involves the same regulatory mechanisms as expression differences between humans and chimpanzees.
Improvement of pea proteins’ properties by microwave glycation
Ertuğrul, Ülkü; Öztop, Halil Mecit; Şümnü, Servet Gülüm; Department of Food Engineering (2020-9)
The tendency to include plant proteins in the diet has increased significantly as consumers' preference for animal proteins decline. Sustainability goals, low manufacturing cost, and high nutritional value are also triggering this demand. For this reason, pea protein as a form of isolate and concentrate is often used in protein enriched diets due to its nutritive properties. Previously, improvement in its functional properties has been studied from many perspectives. Glycation, which is known as the i...
Human inbreeding has decreased in time through the Holocene
Ceballos, Francisco C.; Gürün, Kanat; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Gemici, Hasan Can; Karamurat, Cansu; Koptekin, Dilek; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Mapelli, Igor; Sağlıcan, Ekin; Sürer, Elif; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Götherström, Anders; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (2021-07-01)
The history of human inbreeding is controversial.1 In particular, how the development of sedentary and/or agricultural societies may have influenced overall inbreeding levels, relative to those of hunter-gatherer communities, is unclear.2–5 Here, we present an approach for reliable estimation of runs of homozygosity (ROHs) in genomes with R33 mean sequence coverage across >1 million SNPs and apply this to 411 ancient Eurasian genomes from the last 15,000 years.5–34 We show that the frequency of inbreeding, ...
A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals
Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Plyusnina, Irina Z.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Paeaebo, Svante (2012-09-01)
Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs...
Induced CYP1A mRNA, protein and catalytic activity in the liver of feral fish, leaping mullet, Liza saliens
Arinc, E; Kocabıyık, Semra; Su, E (2001-02-01)
In this study, we examined whether levels of P4501A mRNA expression were naturally induced in feral fish, Liza saliens, and whether CYP1A protein levels and associated enzyme activity, EROD, were also increased. Induction of mRNA was measured using a nucleic acid hybridization technique. For the hybridization studies, a new 33-mer oligonucleotide probe 5 ' -dCTC ATC CAG CTT CCT GTC CTC GCA GTG ATC AAT-3 ' was designed, which corresponded to the totally conserved amino acid motif of CYP1A protein from positi...
Citation Formats
M. Somel, H. Franz, U. Mueller, M. Lachmann, P. Khaitovich, and S. Paeaebo, “Human and Chimpanzee Gene Expression Differences Replicated in Mice Fed Different Diets,” PLOS ONE, pp. 0–0, 2008, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: