Self-related differences in future time orientations

İmamoğlu, Emine Olcay
Guler-Edwards, Ayca
The aim of the present study was to explore patterns in Turkish university students' orientations toward the future, and to investigate how those orientations differed according to their self-types, as suggested by the Balanced Integration and Differentiation (BID) Model (Imamoglu, 1995; 1998; 2003). Accordingly, Attitudes toward the Future Scale, developed for the present purposes, Positive Future Expectations Scale (Imamoglu, 2001), Future Time Orientation Scale (Gjesme, 1979), and the BID Scale (Imamoglu, 1998; 2003) were administered to 295 Turkish university students (170 women, 125 men), who participated in the study. Comparisons of the data from the scales used suggested that it was meaningful to conceptualize the participants future orientations as Positive, Anxious, and Planned. In terms of self-related differences, respondents with related-individuated and separated-patterned self-types, proposed by the BID Model to represent the most balanced and unbalanced self-types, respectively, significantly differed from each other in that the former group seemed to have a more favorable outlook toward the future. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed in the frame work of future attitudes and the BID Model.

Citation Formats
E. O. İmamoğlu and A. Guler-Edwards, “Self-related differences in future time orientations,” TURK PSIKOLOJI DERGISI, vol. 22, no. 60, pp. 115–138, 2007, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: