Standard survey methods for estimating colony losses and explanatory risk factors in Apis mellifera

van der Zee, Romee
Gray, Alison
Holzmann, Celine
Pisa, Lennard
Brodschneider, Robert
Chlebo, Robert
Coffey, Mary F.
Kence, Aykut
Kristiansen, Preben
Mutinelli, Franco
Bach Kim Nguyen, Bach Kim Nguyen
Noureddine, Adjlane
Peterson, Magnus
Soroker, Victoria
Topolska, Grazyna
Vejsnaes, Flemming
Wilkins, Selwyn
This chapter addresses survey methodology and questionnaire design for the collection of data pertaining to estimation of honey bee colony loss rates and identification of risk factors for colony loss. Sources of error in surveys are described. Advantages and disadvantages of different random and non-random sampling strategies and different modes of data collection are presented to enable the researcher to make an informed choice. We discuss survey and questionnaire methodology in some detail, for the purpose of raising awareness of issues to be considered during the survey design stage in order to minimise error and bias in the results. Aspects of survey design are illustrated using surveys in Scotland. Part of a standardized questionnaire is given as a further example, developed by the COLOSS working group for Monitoring and Diagnosis. Approaches to data analysis are described, focussing on estimation of loss rates. Dutch monitoring data from 2012 were used for an example of a statistical analysis with the public domain R software. We demonstrate the estimation of the overall proportion of losses and corresponding confidence interval using a quasi-binomial model to account for extra-binomial variation. We also illustrate generalized linear model fitting when incorporating a single risk factor, and derivation of relevant confidence intervals.


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Whitaker, Justin; Szalanski, Allen L.; Kence, Meral (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2011-03-01)
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Austin, JW; Szalanski, AL; Uva, P; Bagneres, AG; Kence, Aykut (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2002-11-01)
DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase H (COII) region was used to examine genetic variation in the termite genus Reticulitermes Holmgren. We examined 21 species and subspecies from three continents. Sequencing of a 677-bp region of a 780-bp amplicon from 41 individuals and from 17 sequences obtained from GenBank revealed 221 polymorphic sites within the genus. Tajima-Nei distances from species ranged from 0.9 to 12.7%, and parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis revealed seve...
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This study aims to carry out multivariate statistical analyseson 59 taxa of the genus SalviaL. (sage) naturally found in East and Southeast Anatolia in Turkey based on macromorphological, anatomical, palynological and mericarp micromorphological characteristics, to construct an infrageneric grouping in the genus and tounderstandthephylogeneticrelationships between taxa.For the multivariate correspondence analyses, OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) representing different populations of the Salvi...
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Six enzyme systems were studied to determine the genetic variability in honeybee populations in Turkey. Ten morphometric characters were also measured to determine the extent of morphometric variation. Out of six enzyme systems, four were found to be polymorphic with 16 allozymes. The average heterozygosity was calculated as 0.072 +/- 0.007. Morphometric and electrophoretic variables were equally effective in discriminating honeybee populations. European and Anatolian honeybees were separated on the first a...
Citation Formats
R. van der Zee et al., “Standard survey methods for estimating colony losses and explanatory risk factors in Apis mellifera,” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, pp. 0–0, 2013, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: