Chemical Alternatives Assessment for Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals with Safer Alternatives

Rahim, Danial
Consumer demand for safer chemicals has given rise to chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) to enable informed substitution of hazardous chemicals. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate alternatives for five hazardous chemicals, which are still being used in Turkey, via CAA to enable their informed substitution. The target chemicals are: three phthalates; Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) used as plasticizers, and two flame retardants; Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). They are all restricted or need authorization for use in Europe. A total of 13 alternative compounds were evaluated for these five target chemicals. The CAA steps included in this study were: (i) chemical hazard assessment (CHA) with GreenScreen hazard assessment tool, (ii) environmental exposure assessment (EEA) with Equilibrium Criterion (EQC) model, and (iii) qualitative human exposure assessment (QHEA). Comparative evaluations were made among alternative and target chemicals, followed by recommendations. EEA could not be performed for six of the alternatives due to missing information or inorganic nature of chemicals. Amongst six alternatives for phthalates, Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) showed development toxicity concern and recommended to be avoided for use, while glycerides, castor-oil-mono, hydrogenated, acetates (COMGHA) has the highest potential as a safe altenative. For HBCD, all three alternatives were safer according to CHA, two were similar according to EEA and QHEA, yet Butadiene styrene-brominated-copolymer shows the most promise owing to its least hazardous nature, as per CHA. All four selected alternatives for DecaBDE, regarding automotive applications, showed favorable CHA scoring. Although Aluminum diethylphosphinate and Polyphosphonate shows lower human exposure potential, further inquiry is required on environmental exposure of all alternatives.


Dehydration of alcohol solutions obtained from a solvent recovery process by pervaporation
Büküşoğlu, Emre; Yılmaz, Levent; Department of Chemical Engineering (2010)
Solvent recovery is gaining importance in the chemical production processes to reduce the costs and because of environmental concerns. Therefore separation schemes for recovery and recycle of solvents used in printing and packaging industry were developed. However, a low value by-product, mainly ethyl alcohol and isopropanol, is obtained during the solvent recovery process. If the water concentration of this mixture is decreased below 0.1% by weight, the value of it increases significantly. To dehydrate thi...
Catalytic ozonation of synthetic wastewaters containing three different dyes in a fluidized bed reactor
Balcı, Ayşe İrem; Özbelge, Ayşe Tülay; Department of Chemical Engineering (2011)
Environmental regulations have imposed limitations on a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial textile wastewaters. There are several degradation methods used in literature studies. Among these methods ozonation is one of the most considered way to degrade refractory chemicals in textile wastewaters. In recent years, catalytic ozonation as being one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), is applied to reduce the ozone consumption and to increase the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ...
Preparation of ZIF-8 loaded PVA and PES mixed matrix membranes for dehydration of ethanol solutions
Şenyurt, Elif İrem; Kalıpçılar, Halil; Yılmaz, Levent; Department of Chemical Engineering (2015)
Solvent recovery is an important issue in chemical industry when low product cost is desired and also environmental concerns are considered. The conventional methods for solvent recovery are extractive distillation, adsorption, extraction and absorption. However, these methods require excessive amount of energy, cause product contamination due to additional components and need harsh conditions. Pervaporation separation is independent of the vapor-liquid equilibrium; therefore, it is a suitable technique esp...
Diesel Oil Degradation Potential of a Bacterium Inhabiting Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Surface Waters and Characterization of Its Emulsification Ability
Onur, Gozde; Yılmaz, Fadime; İçgen, Bülent (Wiley, 2015-07-01)
Degradation of poorly water soluble hydrocarbons, like n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are challenged by some bacteria through emulsification of hydrocarbons by producing biosurfactants. In diesel oil bioremediation, diesel oil degrading and surfactant producing bacteria are used to eliminate these pollutants from contaminated waters. Therefore, identifying and characterizing bacteria capable of producing surfactant and degrading diesel oil are pivotal. In this study, bacteria isolated from h...
Dynamic resistivity behavior of thin oxide based multilayer thin films under reducing conditions
Kurbanoğlu, Başak; Karakaş, Gürkan; Department of Chemical Engineering (2006)
Effects of urban air pollution on health and environment have lead researchers to find economic air quality monitoring regulations. Since tin dioxide (SnO2) was demonstrated as a gas sensing device in 1962, tin oxide based thin film sensors have been widely studied due to their high sensitivity and fast response. The main advantages of using tin oxide sensors are their low cost, small size and low power consumption for mobile system applications. But, in order SnO2 based sensors to meet low concentration of...
Citation Formats
D. Rahim, “Chemical Alternatives Assessment for Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals with Safer Alternatives,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2021.